From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|The Right Honourable Tony Blair|
Blair at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland (29 January 2009)
2 May 1997 – 27 June 2007
|Preceded by||John Major|
|Succeeded by||Gordon Brown|
21 July 1994 – 2 May 1997
|Prime Minister||John Major|
|Preceded by||Margaret Beckett|
|Succeeded by||John Major|
21 July 1994 – 24 June 2007
|Preceded by||Margaret Beckett|
|Succeeded by||Gordon Brown|
19 July 1992 – 21 July 1994
|Preceded by||Roy Hattersley|
|Succeeded by||Jack Straw|
13 May 1989 – 19 July 1992
|Preceded by||Michael Meacher|
|Succeeded by||Frank Dobson|
7 June 1988 – 13 May 1989
|Preceded by||John Prescott|
|Succeeded by||Frank Dobson|
14 May 1987 – 7 June 1988
|Preceded by||Bryan Gould|
|Succeeded by||Robin Cook|
Member of Parliament
9 June 1983 – 27 June 2007
|Preceded by||Constituency Established|
|Succeeded by||Phil Wilson|
|Born||6 May 1953 (1953-05-06) |
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
|Birth name||Anthony Charles Lynton Blair|
|Children||Euan, Nicky, Kathryn, Leo|
|Alma mater||St John's College, Oxford|
|Website||Tony Blair Office|
Tony Blair was elected Leader of the Labour Party in the leadership election of July 1994, following the sudden death of his predecessor, John Smith. Under his leadership, the party adopted the term "New Labour" and moved away from its traditional left wing position towards the centre ground. Blair subsequently led Labour to a landslide victory in the 1997 general election. At 43 years old, he became the youngest Prime Minister since Lord Liverpool in 1812. In the first years of the New Labour government, Blair's government implemented a number of 1997 manifesto pledges, introducing the minimum wage, Human Rights Act and Freedom of Information Act; and carrying out regional devolution, establishing the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly.
Blair's role as Prime Minister was particularly visible in foreign and security policy, including in Northern Ireland, where he was involved in the 1998 Good Friday Agreement. From the start of the War on Terror in 2001, Blair strongly supported United States foreign policy, notably by participating in the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and 2003 invasion of Iraq. In his first six years, Blair had British troops ordered into battle five times — more than any other prime minister in British history.
Blair is the Labour Party's longest-serving Prime Minister; the only person to have led the Labour Party to three consecutive general election victories; and the only Labour Prime Minister to serve consecutive terms more than one of which was at least four years long. He was succeeded as Leader of the Labour Party on 24 June 2007 and as Prime Minister on 27 June 2007 by Gordon Brown, who was Chancellor of the Exchequer. On the day he resigned as Prime Minister, he was appointed the official Envoy of the Quartet on the Middle East on behalf of the United Nations, the European Union, the United States, and Russia.
In May 2008, Blair launched his Tony Blair Faith Foundation. This was followed in July 2009 by the launching of the Faith and Globalisation Initiative with Yale University in the USA, Durham University in the UK and National University of Singapore in Asia to deliver a postgraduate programme in partnership with the Foundation.
Background and family lifeBlair was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on 6 May 1953, the second son of Leo and Hazel Blair (née Corscadden). Leo Blair, the illegitimate son of two English actors, had been adopted as a baby by Glasgow shipyard worker James Blair and his wife, Mary. Hazel Corscadden was the daughter of George Corscadden, a butcher and Orangeman who moved to Glasgow in 1916 but returned to (and later died in) Ballyshannon in 1923, where his wife, Sarah Margaret (née Lipsett), gave birth to Blair's mother, Hazel, above her family's grocery shop. George Corscadden was from a family of Protestant farmers in County Donegal, Ireland, who descended from Ulster-Scots settlers who took their family name from Garscadden, now part of Glasgow.
Life as a childTony Blair has one elder brother, Sir William Blair, a High Court judge, and a younger sister, Sarah. Tony Blair spent the first 19 months of his life at the family home in Paisley Terrace in the Willowbrae area of Edinburgh. During this period, his father worked as a junior tax inspector whilst also studying for a law degree from the University of Edinburgh. In the 1950s, his family spent three and a half years in Adelaide, Australia, where his father was a lecturer in law at the University of Adelaide. The Blairs lived close to the university, in the suburb of Dulwich. The family returned to Britain in the late 1950s, living for a time with Hazel Blair's stepfather, William McClay, and her mother at their home in Stepps, near Glasgow. He spent the remainder of his childhood in Durham, England, where his father lectured at Durham University.
EducationAfter attending The Chorister School in Durham in north-east England from 1961 to 1966, Blair boarded at Fettes College, a prestigious independent school in Edinburgh in Scotland, during which time he met Charlie Falconer (a pupil at the rival Edinburgh Academy), whom he later appointed Lord Chancellor. He reportedly modelled himself on Mick Jagger. His teachers were unimpressed with him; his biographer, John Rentoul, reported that "All the teachers I spoke to when researching the book said he was a complete pain in the backside, and they were very glad to see the back of him." Blair was arrested at Fettes, having been mistaken for a burglar as he climbed into his dormitory using a ladder after having been out late.
jurisprudence at St John's College, Oxford. As a student, he played guitar and sang in a rock band called Ugly Rumours. During this time, he dated future American Psycho director Mary Harron.
He was influenced by fellow student and Anglican priest Peter Thomson, who awakened within Blair a deep concern for religious faith and left-wing politics. While Blair was at Oxford, his mother Hazel died of cancer, which greatly affected him. After graduating from Oxford in 1976 with a Second Class Honours BA in Jurisprudence, Blair became a member of Lincoln's Inn, enrolled as a pupil barrister, and met his future wife, Cherie Booth (daughter of the actor Tony Booth) at the law chambers founded by Derry Irvine (who was to be Blair's first Lord Chancellor), 11 King's Bench Walk Chambers. He appears in a number of reported cases, for example as in Nethermere (St Neots) Ltd v Gardiner where he represented employers unsuccessfully in an attempt to deny female factory workers holiday pay.
Marriage and childrenTony Blair married Cherie Booth, a Roman Catholic and future Queen's Counsel, on 29 March 1980. They have four children: Euan, Nicholas, Kathryn, and Leo. Leo was the first legitimate child born to a serving Prime Minister in over 150 years—since Francis Russell was born to Lord John Russell on 11 July 1849. Blair was criticised when it was discovered that one child had received private tuition from staff at Westminster School. All four children have Irish passports, by virtue of Blair's mother Hazel.
Personal healthBlair suffered from chest pains on Sunday 19 October 2003 and underwent a cardioversion at Hammersmith Hospital.
Religious faithIn an interview with Michael Parkinson broadcast on ITV1 on 4 March 2006, Blair referred to the role of his Christian faith in his decision to go to war in Iraq, stating that he had prayed about the issue, and saying that God would judge him for his decision: “I think if you have faith about these things, you realise that judgement is made by other people … and if you believe in God, it's made by God as well.”
A longer exploration of his faith can be found in an interview with Third Way Magazine. There he says that "I was brought up as [a Christian], but I was not in any real sense a practising one until I went to Oxford. There was an Australian priest at the same college as me who got me interested again. In a sense, it was a rediscovery of religion as something living, that was about the world around me rather than some sort of special one-to-one relationship with a remote Being on high. Suddenly I began to see its social relevance. I began to make sense of the world".
At one point Alastair Campbell, Blair's director of strategy and communications, intervened in an interview, preventing the Prime Minister from answering a question about his Christianity, explaining, "We don't do God".
Cherie Blair's friend and "spiritual guru" Carole Caplin is credited with introducing her and her husband to various New Age symbols and beliefs, including "magic pendants" known as "BioElectric Shields". The most controversial of the Blairs' New Age practices occurred when on holiday in Mexico. The couple, wearing only bathing costumes, took part in a rebirthing procedure, which involved smearing mud and fruit over each others' bodies while sitting in a steam bath.
Later on, Blair questioned the Pope's attitude towards homosexuality, arguing that religious leaders must start "rethinking" the issue. He was later rebuked by Vincent Nichols, the new archbishop of Westminster, who said that Catholic thinking was 'rather different' from the kind promoted by the former prime minister.
On 22 December 2007, it was disclosed that Blair, who in 1996, had been reprimanded by Cardinal Basil Hume for receiving Holy Communion at Mass despite not being a Catholic, in contravention of canon law, had converted to the Catholic faith, and that it was "a private matter". He had informed Pope Benedict XVI on 23 June 2007 that he wanted to become a Catholic. The Pope and his advisors criticised some of Blair's political actions, but followed up with a reportedly unprecedented red-carpet welcome, which included Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, who would be responsible for Blair's Catholic instruction.
On 14 January 2009, Blair, upon a visit to the British Embassy in Washington, D.C., described, in the guest book, his home as being 'Jerusalem'. This was followed shortly after, on the occasion of his addressing of the National Prayer Breakfast, by his discussion of the issue of religion in the world and the Middle East peace process in his address and how he spends so much of his time in the Holy Land and in the Holy City. He reported his Palestinian guide as bemoaning the fate of his nation looking to heaven and saying “Moses, Jesus, Mohammed: why did they all have to come here?" For Blair the Holy City is "a good place to reflect on religion: a source of so much inspiration; an excuse for so much evil."
Early political careerBlair joined the Labour Party shortly after graduating from Oxford in 1975. During the early 1980s, he was involved in Labour politics in Hackney South and Shoreditch, where he aligned himself with the "soft left" of the party. He unsuccessfully attempted to secure selection as a candidate for Hackney London Borough Council. Through his father-in-law, Tony Booth, he contacted Labour MP Tom Pendry to ask for help in pursuing a Parliamentary career. Pendry gave him a tour of the House of Commons and advised him to stand for selection as a candidate in a forthcoming by-election in the safe Conservative seat of Beaconsfield, where Pendry knew a senior member of the local party. Blair was chosen as the candidate; at the Beaconsfield by-election, he won only 10% of the vote and lost his deposit, but he impressed Labour Party leader Michael Foot and acquired a profile within the party. In contrast to his later centrism, Blair made it clear in a letter he wrote to Foot in July 1982, that he had "come to Socialism through Marxism" and considered himself on the left. The letter was eventually published in June 2006.
In 1983, Blair found the newly created constituency of Sedgefield, a notionally safe Labour seat near where he had grown up in Durham. The branch had not made a nomination, and Blair visited them. Several sitting MPs displaced by boundary changes were interested in securing selection to fight the seat. With the crucial support of John Burton, Blair won their endorsement; at the last minute, he was added to the short list and won the selection over Les Huckfield. Burton later became Blair's agent and one of his most trusted and longest-standing allies.
Blair's election literature in the 1983 UK general election endorsed left-wing policies that Labour advocated in the early 1980s. He called for Britain to leave the EEC, though he had told his selection conference that he personally favoured continuing membership. He also supported unilateral nuclear disarmament as a member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Blair was helped on the campaign trail by soap opera actress Pat Phoenix, his father-in-law's girlfriend. Blair was elected as MP for Sedgefield despite the party's landslide defeat in the general election.
In his maiden speech in the House of Commons on 6 July 1983, Blair stated, "I am a socialist not through reading a textbook that has caught my intellectual fancy, nor through unthinking tradition, but because I believe that, at its best, socialism corresponds most closely to an existence that is both rational and moral. It stands for cooperation, not confrontation; for fellowship, not fear. It stands for equality." The Labour Party is declared in its constitution to be a democratic socialist party rather than a social democratic party; Blair himself organised this declaration of Labour to be a socialist party when he dealt with the change to the party's Clause IV in their constitution.
Once elected, Blair's political ascent was rapid. He received his first front-bench appointment in 1984 as assistant Treasury spokesman. In May 1985, he appeared on BBC's Question Time, arguing that the Conservative Government's Public Order White Paper was a threat to civil liberties. Blair demanded an inquiry into the Bank of England's decision to rescue the collapsed Johnson Matthey Bank in October 1985 and embarrassed the government by finding a EEC report critical of British economic policy that had been countersigned by a member of the Conservative government. By this time, Blair was aligned with the reforming tendencies in the party (headed by leader Neil Kinnock) and was promoted after the 1987 election to the shadow Trade and Industry team as spokesman on the City of London. In 1987, he stood for election to the Shadow Cabinet, receiving 77 votes.
Blair became Shadow Home Secretary under John Smith. John Smith died suddenly in 1994 of a heart attack. Blair beat John Prescott and Margaret Beckett in the subsequent leadership election and became Leader of the Opposition. As is customary for the holder of that office, Blair was appointed a Privy Councillor.
Leader of the Labour PartyBlair announced at the end of his speech at the 1994 Labour Party conference that he intended to replace Clause IV of the party's constitution with a new statement of aims and values. This involved the deletion of the party's stated commitment to "the common ownership of the means of production and exchange", which was widely interpreted as referring to wholesale nationalisation. At a special conference in April 1995, the clause was replaced by a statement that the party is 'democratic socialist'.
He inherited the Labour leadership at a time when the party was ascendant over the Tories in the opinion polls since the Tory government's reputation for monetary excellence was left in tatters by the Black Wednesday economic disaster of September 1992. Blair's election as leader saw Labour support surge higher still
At the 1996 Labour Party conference, Blair stated that his three top priorities on coming to office were "education, education, and education".
Aided by the unpopularity of John Major's Conservative government (itself deeply divided over the European Union), "New Labour" won a landslide victory in the 1997 general election, ending 18 years of Conservative Party government, with the heaviest Conservative defeat since 1832.
During Smith's leadership of the Labour Party, there were discussions with Paddy Ashdown, the leader of the Liberal Democrats, about forming a coalition government if the next general election resulted in a hung parliament. After Blair became leader, these talks continued - despite virtually every opinion poll since late 1992 having shown Labour with enough support to form a majority. However, the scale of the Labour victory meant that there was ultimately never any need for a coalition.
Prime ministerBlair became the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 2 May 1997, serving concurrently as First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service and Leader of the Labour Party. The 43-year old Blair became the youngest person to become Prime Minister since Lord Liverpool in 1812, at the age of 42. With victories in 1997, 2001, and 2005, Blair was the Labour Party's longest-serving prime minister, the only person to lead the party to three consecutive general election victories.
Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland Peace Process by helping to negotiate the Good Friday Agreement (after 30 years of conflict) was widely recognised. Following the Omagh Bombing on 15 August 1998, by members of the Real IRA opposed to the peace process, which killed 29 people and wounded hundreds, Blair visited the County Tyrone town and met with victims at Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast.
War on TerrorFrom the start of the War on Terror in 2001, Blair strongly supported United States foreign policy, notably by participating in the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and 2003 invasion of Iraq. The invasion of Iraq was particularly controversial, as it attracted widespread public opposition and 139 of Blair's MPs opposed it.As a result, he faced criticism over the policy itself and the circumstances in which it was decided upon. Alastair Campbell described Blair's statment that the intelligence on WMDs was "beyond doubt" as his "assessment of the assessment that was given to him."  In 2009, Blair stated that he would have supported removing Saddam Hussein from power even in the face of proof that he had no such weapons. Playwright Harold Pinter and former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad accused Blair of war crimes.Testifying before the Iraq Inquiry on 29 January 2010, Blair said Saddam was a "monster and I believe he threatened not just the region but the world."  Blair said that British and American attitude towards Saddam Hussein had "changed dramatically" after the 11 September attacks. Blair denied that he would have supported the invasion of Iraq even if he had thought Saddam had no weapons of mass destruction. He said he believed the world was safer as a result of the invasion. He also said that there was "no real difference between wanting regime change and wanting Iraq to disarm: regime change was US policy because Iraq was in breach of its UN obligations."
Relationship with ParliamentOne of his first acts as Prime Minister was to replace the then twice-weekly 15-minute sessions of Prime Minister's Questions held on Tuesdays and Thursdays with a single 30-minute session on Wednesdays. In addition to PMQs, Blair held monthly press conferences at which he fielded questions from journalists and – from 2002 – broke precedent by agreeing to give evidence twice yearly before the most senior Commons select committee, The Liaison Committee.Blair was sometimes perceived as paying insufficient attention both to the views of his own Cabinet colleagues and to those of the House of Commons. His style was sometimes criticised as not that of a prime minister and head of government, which he was, but of a president and head of state—which he was not.Blair was accused of excessive reliance on spin. He is the first British Prime Minister to have been formally questioned by police, though not under caution, while still in office.
Events prior to resignationAs the casualties of the Iraq War mounted, Blair was accused of misleading Parliament, and his popularity dropped dramatically. The Labour party's overall majority in the 2005 general election was reduced to 66. As a combined result of the Blair-Brown pact, Iraq war and low approval ratings, pressure built up within the Labour party for Blair to resign.On 7 September 2006, Blair publicly stated he would step down as party leader by the time of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) conference held 10–13 September 2007, having promised to serve a full term during the previous general election campaign. On 10 May 2007, during a speech at the Trimdon Labour Club, Blair announced his intention to resign as both Labour Party leader and Prime Minister. At a special party conference in Manchester on 24 June 2007, he formally handed over the leadership of the Labour Party to Gordon Brown, who had been Chancellor of the Exchequer.Blair tendered his resignation on 27 June 2007 and his successor, Gordon Brown assumed office the same afternoon. He also resigned his seat in the House of Commons in the traditional form of accepting the Stewardship of the Chiltern Hundreds to which he was appointed by Gordon Brown in one of the latter's last acts as Chancellor of the Exchequer.The resulting Sedgefield by-election was won by Labour's candidate, Phil Wilson. Blair decided not to issue a list of Resignation Honours, making him the first Prime Minister of the modern era not to do so.
PoliciesIn 2001, Tony Blair said, "We are a left of centre party, pursuing economic prosperity and social justice as partners and not as opposites". Blair has rarely applied such labels to himself, but he promised before the 1997 election that New Labour would govern "from the radical centre", and according to one lifelong Labour Party member, has always described himself as a social democrat. However, Labour Party backbenchers and other left wing critics typically place Blair to the right of centre. A YouGov opinion poll in 2005 also found that a small majority of British voters, including many New Labour supporters, place Blair on the right of the political spectrum. The Financial Times on the other hand has argued that Blair is not conservative, but instead a populist. The new Clause IV of the Labour Party's constitution defines the party as "Democratic Socialist".
Critics and admirers tend to agree that Blair's electoral success was based on his ability to occupy the centre ground and appeal to voters across the political spectrum, to the extent that he has been fundamentally at odds with traditional Labour Party values. Some left wing critics have argued that Blair has overseen the final stage of a long term shift of the Labour Party to the right, and that very little now remains of a Labour Left. There is also evidence that Blair's long term dominance of the centre has forced his Conservative opponents to shift a long distance to the left, in order to challenge his hegemony there.
Blair has raised taxes (but did not increase income tax for high-earners); introduced a minimum wage and some new employment rights (while keeping Margaret Thatcher's anti-trade union legislation); introduced significant constitutional reforms; promoted new rights for gay people in the Civil Partnership Act 2004; and signed treaties integrating Britain more closely with the EU. He introduced substantial market-based reforms in the education and health sectors; introduced student tuition fees; sought to reduce certain categories of welfare payments, and introduced tough anti-terrorism and identity card legislation. Under Blair's government the amount of new legislation increased which attracted criticism. Blair increased police powers by adding to the number of arrestable offences, compulsory DNA recording and the use of dispersal orders.
Environmental recordTony Blair has criticised other governments for not doing enough to solve global climate change. In a 1997 visit to the United States, he made a comment on "great industrialised nations" that fail to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Again in 2003, Blair went before the United States Congress and said that climate change "cannot be ignored", insisting "we need to go beyond even Kyoto."  His record at home tends to say something different. Tony Blair and his party have promised a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide  but during his term the emissions rose. The Labour Party also claimed that by 2010 10% of the energy would come from renewable resources but in fact only 3% currently does.
In 2000 Blair "flagged up" 100 million euros for green policies and urged environmentalists and businesses to work together.
Relationship with the United StatesBill Clinton, Blair formed a strong political alliance with George W. Bush, particularly in the area of foreign policy. At one point, Nelson Mandela described Blair as "the U.S. foreign minister". Blair has also often openly been referred to as "Bush's poodle". Kendall Myers, a senior analyst at the State Department, reportedly said that he felt "a little ashamed" of Bush's treatment of the Prime Minister and that his attempts to influence U.S. policy were typically ignored: "It was a done deal from the beginning, it was a one-sided relationship that was entered into with open eyes... There was nothing, no payback, no sense of reciprocity".
For his part, Bush lauded Blair and the UK. In his post-11 September speech, for example, he stated that "America has no truer friend than Great Britain".
The alliance between Bush and Blair seriously damaged Blair's standing in the eyes of many British people. Blair argued it is in Britain's interest to "protect and strengthen the bond" with the United States regardless of who is in the White House. However, a perception of one-sided compromising personal and political closeness led to serious discussion of the term "Poodle-ism" in the UK media, to describe the "Special Relationship" of the UK government and Prime Minister with the US White House and President. A revealing conversation between Bush and Blair, with the former addressing the latter as "Yo, Blair" was recorded when they did not know a microphone was live at the G8 conference in Russia in 2006.
According to comments in the book, Blair, written by Anthony Seldon, Blair had a deep feeling for Israel, born in part from his faith. Blair has been a long time member of the Pro-Israel lobby group Labour Friends of Israel.
In 1994, Blair met Michael Levy, later Lord Levy, a pop music mogul and fundraiser. Blair and Levy became close friends and tennis partners.
During his first visit to Israel, Tony Blair thought the Israelis bugged him in his car. He also went on to claim that the Israeli prime minister was merely an "armour-plated bullshitter". .
Levy ran the Labour Leader's Office Fund to finance Blair's campaign before the 1997 General Election and raised £12m towards Labour’s landslide victory, Levy was rewarded with a peerage, and in 2002, Blair appointed Levy as his personal envoy to the Middle East. Levy praised Blair for his 'solid and committed support of the State of Israel'. Tam Dalyell, while Father of the House of Commons, suggested in 2003 that Blair's foreign policy decisions were unduly influenced by a cabal of Jewish advisers, including Levy and Peter Mandelson.
Blair, on coming to office, had been 'cool towards the right-wing Netanyahu government'. After the election in 1999 of Ehud Barak, with whom Blair forged a close relationship, he became much more sympathetic to Israel.  From 2001 Blair also built up a relationship with Barak's successor, Ariel Sharon, and responded positively to Arafat, whom he had met thirteen times since becoming prime minister and regarded as essential to future negotiations. In 2004, 50 former diplomats, including ambassadors to Baghdad and Tel Aviv, stated they had 'watched with deepening concern' at Britain following the U.S. into war in Iraq in 2003. They criticised Blair's support for the Road map for peace which included the retaining of Israeli settlements on the West Bank.
In 2006 Blair was criticised for his failure to immediately call for a ceasefire in the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. The Observer newspaper claimed that at a cabinet meeting before Blair left for a summit with Bush on 28 July 2006, a significant number of ministers pressured Blair to publicly criticise Israel over the scale of deaths and destruction in Lebanon. Blair was criticised for his solid stance alongside U.S. President George W. Bush on Middle East policy.
In March 2010 the Advisory Committee on Business Appointments revealed that 14 months after resigning as Prime Minister, Blair had served as a paid business consultant to an oil firm with interests in Iraq. The news raised concerns that he had profited financially from contacts he made during the Iraq war.
Relationship with media
Rupert MurdochTony Blair was reported to have been supported by Rupert Murdoch the founder of the News Corporation organisation. In 1995, while leader of the Opposition, Blair disclosed in the Commons register of interests that he was a guest of Murdoch when he flew to meet him in Hayman Island.
Contacts with UK media proprietorsA Cabinet Office freedom of information response, released the day after Blair handed over power to Gordon Brown, documents Blair having various official phone calls and meetings with Rupert Murdoch of News Corporation and Richard Desmond of Northern and Shell Media.
The response includes contacts "clearly of an official nature" in the specified period, but excludes contacts "not clearly of an official nature." No details were given of the subjects discussed. In the period between September 2002 and April 2005, Blair and Murdoch are documented speaking 6 times; three times in the 9 days before the Iraq war, including the eve of the 20 March US and UK invasion, and on 29 January, 25 April and 3 October 2004. Between January 2003 and February 2004, Blair had three meetings with Richard Desmond; on 29 January and 3 September 2003 and 23 February 2004.
The information was disclosed after a three and a half year battle by the Liberal Democrats' Lord Avebury. Lord Avebury's initial October 2003 information request was dismissed by then leader of the Lords, Baroness Amos. A following complaint was rejected, with Downing Street claiming the information compromised free and frank discussions, while Cabinet Office claimed releasing the timing of the PM's contacts with individuals is undesirable, as it might lead to the content of the discussions being disclosed. While awaiting a following appeal from Lord Avebury, the cabinet office announced that it would release the information. Lord Avebury said: "The public can now scrutinise the timing of his (Murdoch's) contacts with the former Prime Minister, to see whether they can be linked to events in the outside world."
Media portrayalTony Blair is acknowledged by most[who?] to be a highly skilful media performer who comes over as charismatic, informal, and articulate. A few months after becoming Prime Minister he gave a tribute to Diana, Princess of Wales on the morning of her death in August 1997, in which he famously described her as "the People's Princess".
After taking office in 1997, Blair gave particular prominence to his press secretary, who became known as the Prime Minister's Official Spokesman (the two roles have since been separated). Blair's first PMOS was Alastair Campbell, who served in that role from May 1997 to 8 June 2001, after which he served as the Prime Minister's Director of Communications and Strategy until his resignation on 29 August 2003 in the aftermath of the Hutton Inquiry.
Relationship with Labour PartyBlair's apparent refusal to set a date for his departure was criticised by the British press and Members of Parliament. It has been reported that a number of cabinet ministers believed that Blair's timely departure from office would be required to be able to win a fourth election. Some ministers viewed Blair's announcement of policy initiatives in September 2006 as an attempt to draw attention away from these issues.
Blair forged friendships with several conservative European leaders, including Silvio Berlusconi of Italy, Angela Merkel of Germany and more recently Nicolas Sarkozy of France.
Gordon BrownAfter the death of John Smith in 1994, Blair and his close colleague Gordon Brown (they shared an office at the House of Commons) were both seen as possible candidates for the party leadership. They agreed not to stand against each other, it is said, as part of a supposed Blair-Brown pact. Brown, who considered himself the senior of the two, understood that Blair would give way to him: opinion polls soon indicated, however, that Blair appeared to enjoy greater support among voters. Their relationship in power became so turbulent that (it was reported) the deputy prime minister, John Prescott, often had to act as "marriage guidance counsellor".
During the 2010 election campaign Blair publicly endorsed Gordon Brown's leadership, praising the way he had handled the financial crisis.
Post-Prime Ministerial career
DiplomacyOn 27 June 2007, Blair officially resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after ten years in office, and he was officially confirmed as Middle East envoy for the United Nations, European Union, United States, and Russia. Blair originally indicated that he would retain his parliamentary seat after his resignation as Prime Minister came into effect; however, on being confirmed for the Middle East role he resigned from the Commons by taking up an office of profit. President George W. Bush had preliminary talks with Blair to ask him to take up the envoy role. White House sources stated that "both Israel and the Palestinians had signed up to the proposal". In May 2008, Tony Blair announced a new plan for peace and for Palestinian rights, based heavily on the ideas of the Peace Valley plan.
During the first nine days of the 2008–2009 Israel-Gaza conflict, Blair was allegedly spotted at the opening of the Armani store at Knightsbridge. Aides said he had been in phone contact with other world leaders since the fighting began.
Private sectorIn January 2008, it was confirmed that Blair would be joining investment bank JPMorgan Chase in a "senior advisory capacity" and that he would advise Zurich Financial Services on climate change. Some sources have claimed that his role at JP Morgan will pay more than $1m a year. This additional salary will contribute to annual earnings of over £7m.
Blair also gives lectures and earns up to US$250,000 for a 90-minute speech. Yale University announced on 7 March 2008 that Blair will teach a course on issues of faith and globalisation at the Yale Schools of Management and Divinity as a Howland distinguished fellow during the 2008–09 academic year.
Blair's links with, and receipt of an undisclosed sum from, UI Energy Corporation, a Korean company with oil interests in northern Iraq, have also been subject to media comment in the UK.
He may have a personal fortune of anything up to £60 million – the vast bulk of it earned over the three years since his retirement as Prime Minister and owns nine properties in places as diverse as London, the Bahamas and New York.
Tony Blair AssociatesBlair has established Tony Blair Associates. This firm will "allow him to provide, in partnership with others, strategic advice on a commercial and pro bono [free] basis, on political and economic trends and governmental reform."
European Council president speculationIn 2009, there there was speculation in the media that Blair was open to the idea of becoming the first President of the European Council, a post created in the Treaty of Lisbon that would come into force in 2009, if successfully ratified. Gordon Brown added his support, but noted that it was premature to discuss candidates before the treaty was approved. A spokesman for Blair did not rule out him accepting the post, but said that he was concentrating on his current role in the Middle East. Blair was later invited to speak on European issues at a rally of President Sarkozy 's party, the Union for a Popular Movement, on 12 January 2008, which fuelled speculation further.
There was opposition to Blair's candidacy for the job. In the UK, the Conservative Party and the Liberal Democrats both said they would oppose Blair. In Germany, the leader of the Free Democrats, Guido Westerwelle, said that he preferred a candidate from a smaller European country. The Prime Minister of Luxembourg, Jean-Claude Juncker emerged as a rival to Blair's candidacy and had the backing for many of the smaller European member states. In November 2009, the Belgian PM Herman Van Rompuy was named President of the European Council.
CharityOn 14 November 2007, Blair launched the Tony Blair Sports Foundation, which aims to "increase childhood participation in sports activities, especially in the North East of England, where a larger proportion of children are socially excluded, and to promote overall health and prevent childhood obesity." On 30 May 2008, Blair launched the Tony Blair Faith Foundation as a vehicle for encouraging different faiths to join together in promoting respect and understanding, as well as working to tackle poverty. Reflecting Blair's own faith but not dedicated to any particular religion, the Foundation aims to "show how faith is a powerful force for good in the modern world". "The Foundation will use its profile and resources to encourage people of faith to work together more closely to tackle global poverty and conflict," says its mission statement.
In February 2009, he applied to set up a charity called the Tony Blair Africa Governance Initiative, the application was approved in November 2009.
MemoirsIn March 2010, it was reported that Blair's memoirs, titled The Journey, would be published in September 2010. In July 2010 it was announced the memoirs would be retitled A Journey. It was announced on 16 August 2010 that Blair would give the £4.6 million advance and all royalties from his memoirs to a sports centre for badly injured soldiers. The book was published on 1 September and within hours of its launch had become the fastest-selling autobiography of all time. On 3 September Blair gave his first live interview since publication on The Late Late Show in Ireland, with protesters lying in wait there for him. On 4 September Blair was confronted by 200 anti-war and hardline Irish nationalist demonstrators before the first book signing of his memoirs at Eason's bookstore on O'Connell Street in Dublin, with angry activists chanting "war criminal" and that he had "blood on his hands", and clashing with Irish Police (Garda Síochána) as they tried to break through a security cordon outside the Eason's store. Blair was pelted with eggs and shoes, and encountered an attempted citizen's arrest for war crimes. Social networking media have been used to protest Blair's policies and legacy of unjustified and criminal war on Iraq 
Portrayals and cameo appearances
AppearancesBlair made an animated cameo appearance as himself in The Simpsons episode, "The Regina Monologues" (2003) He has also appeared himself at the end of the first episode of The Amazing Mrs. Pritchard, a British TV series about an unknown housewife becoming Prime Minister. On 14 March 2007, Blair appeared as a celebrity judge on Masterchef goes Large after contestants had to prepare a three course meal in the Downing Street kitchens for Tony Blair and Bertie Ahern. On 16 March 2007, in a comedy sketch with Catherine Tate, who appeared in the guise of her character Lauren Cooper from The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch was made for the BBC Red Nose Day fundraising programme of 2007. During the sketch, Blair used Lauren's catchphrase "Am I bovvered?".
PortrayalsMichael Sheen has portrayed Blair three times, in the films The Deal (2003), The Queen (2006), and The Special Relationship (2009). Blair was portrayed by Robert Lindsay in the TV programme A Very Social Secretary; he reprised the role in The Trial of Tony Blair. He was also portrayed by James Larkin in The Government Inspector (2005), and by Ioan Gruffudd in W. (2008).
Blair in fiction and satireWhen Blair resigned as Prime Minister, Robert Harris, a former Fleet Street political editor, dropped his other work to write The Ghost. The CIA-influenced British prime minister in the book is said to be a thinly disguised version of Blair. In November 2007 it was announced that Roman Polanski was to direct the film version of the novel, and would be writing the script with Harris. The film was released in February 2010 in the US.
Titles and honours
Styles from 1983 election
- Mr Anthony Charles Lynton Blair MP (1983–1994)
- The Rt Hon Anthony Charles Lynton Blair MP (1994–2007)
- The Rt Hon Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (2007–present)
- Privy Councillor (1994)
- Congressional Gold Medal (2003)
- Honorary Doctor of Law (LL.D.) from Queen's University Belfast (2008)
- Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
- Dan David Prize (2009)
- Liberty Medal (2010)
On 22 May 2008, Blair received an honorary law doctorate from Queen's University Belfast, alongside former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, for distinction in public service and roles in the Northern Ireland peace process.
On 13 January 2009, Blair was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush. Bush stated that Blair was given the award "in recognition of exemplary achievement and to convey the utmost esteem of the American people" and cited Blair's support for the War on Terror and his role in achieving peace in Northern Ireland as two reasons for justifying his being presented with the award.
On 16 February 2009, Blair was awarded the Dan David Prize by Tel Aviv University for "exceptional leadership and steadfast determination in helping to engineer agreements and forge lasting solutions to areas in conflict". He was awarded the prize in May 2009.
On 13 September 2010, Blair was awarded the Liberty Medal at the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The award was presented by former President Bill Clinton. The award is awarded annually to men and women of courage and conviction who strive to secure the blessings of liberty to people around the globe.
- Blair, Tony (2002). The Courage of Our Convictions Fabian Society, ISBN 0-7163-0603-4
- Blair, Tony (2000). Superpower: Not Superstate? (Federal Trust European Essays) Federal Trust for Education & Research, ISBN 1-903403-25-1
- Blair, Tony (1998). The Third Way: New Politics for the New Century Fabian Society, ISBN 0-7163-0588-7
- Blair, Tony (1998). Leading the Way: New Vision for Local Government Institute for Public Policy Research, ISBN 1-86030-075-8
- Blair, Tony (1997). New Britain: My Vision of a Young Country Basic Books, ISBN 0-8133-3338-5
- Blair, Tony (1995). Let Us Face the Future Fabian Society, ISBN 0-7163-0571-2
- Blair, Tony (1994). What Price Safe Society? Fabian Society, ISBN 0-7163-0562-3
- Blair, Tony (1994). Socialism Fabian Society, ISBN 0-7163-0565-8
- Blair Ministry
- 'Cash for Honours' scandal
- Criticism of Tony Blair
- Cultural depictions of Tony Blair
- Impeach Blair campaign
- Labour Party leadership election, 2007
- Politics of the United Kingdom
- Tony Blair Faith Foundation
- Electoral history of Tony Blair
- ^ BBC Political Correspondent Jon Sopel Tony Blair BBC News
- ^ "British Politics: Labour Manifesto (1997)". AustralianPolitics.com. http://www.australianpolitics.com/uk/labour/97-labour-manifesto.shtml. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Will Woodward, chief political correspondent (11 January 2007). "Blair loyalists insist centre ground is key to election victory". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2007/jan/11/uk.labourleadership. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Blair: The Inside Story BBC News, 22 February 2007
- ^ a b "Brown is UK's new prime minister". BBC News. 27 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6245682.stm. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
- ^ "Blair launches faith foundation". BBC News. 30 May 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7427809.stm. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ "Tony Blair launches Faith and Globalisation programme at Durham University". http://www.dur.ac.uk/news/newsitem/?itemno=8243. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
- ^ "Yale and Tony Blair Launch Faith and Globalization Initiative". Yale University Office of Public Affairs. http://opa.yale.edu/news/article.aspx?id=6040. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
- ^ a b "Blair's birthplace is bulldozed in Edinburgh". Edinburgh Evening News (Johnston Press plc). 9 August 2006. http://edinburghnews.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=1156262006. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ "Tony Blair". Tony Blair. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9003134.
- ^ Blair: 'Why adoption is close to my heart', 21 December 2000, The Guardian
- ^ "Local Map". Ballyshannon Town Council. http://www.ballyshannon.ie/Article_Listings.aspx?tscategory_id=276&category_name=Local+Map. Retrieved 22 November 2007. "Lipsett's Grocery Shop: This is the birthplace of Hazel (Corscadden) Blair, mother of British Prime Minister Tony Blair. Her mother's maiden name was Lipsett and Hazel was born over the shop."
- ^ Nicholas Watt and Owen Bowcott (14 March 2007). "'We had no file on him but it was clear he was up for the business'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/guardianpolitics/story/0,,2033286,00.html. Retrieved 22 November 2007. "In the second part of our series on the peace process, Sinn Féin chief negotiator Martin McGuinness recalls his first encounter with the PM and explains how he saved the Good Friday deal"
- ^ Andrew Rawnsley (8 April 2007). "Peace and war: the reckoning. Part two, The barrister and the preacher". The Observer (London). http://observer.guardian.co.uk/blair/story/0,,2049958,00.html. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- ^ Ahmed, Kamal (27 April 2003). "Tony's big adventure". The Observer (London: Guardian Newspapers Ltd.). http://observer.guardian.co.uk/secondterm/story/0,8224,944191,00.html. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ "Alumni Roll Call". Durham Chorister School website. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071021173809/http://www.thechoristerschool.com/alumni/rollcall.php. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- ^ Victoria Powell (6 January 2006). "Tony Blair absolutely modelled himself on Mick Jagger". The Guardian (London). http://arts.guardian.co.uk/filmandmusic/story/0,,1678432,00.html. Retrieved 22 November 2007. "TV producer Victoria Powell explains how she recreated the PM's adventures in 1970s rock"
- ^ Ed Black's diary (23 July 2004). "Tony Blair's revolting schooldays". The Scotsman. http://news.scotsman.com/edwardblack/Tony-Blairs-revolting-schooldays.2548089.jp. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- ^ "Blair in a boater, a crude hand gesture, and the Class of '75". Daily Mail (London: Associated Newspapers Ltd.). 3 March 2006. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=439587&in_page_id=1770&ico=Homepage&icl=TabModule&icc=picbox&ct=5. Retrieved 8 March 2007.
- ^ Michaelmas Term 1974. Complete Alphabetical List of the Resident Members of the University of Oxford. Oxford University Press. 1974. p. 10.
- ^ "Mary Harron Biography". Yahoo! Movies. Yahoo! Inc. 2006. http://movies.yahoo.com/movie/contributor/1800256658/bio. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ Nethermere (St Neots) Ltd v Gardiner  ICR 319
- ^ See also, Thomas Marshall (Exports) Ltd v Guinle  Ch 227; Methven v Cow Industrial Polymers Ltd  ICR 463; Miss World (Jersey) Ltd v James Street Productions Ltd  FSR 309
- ^ "Events & Visits | Cherie celebrates her 30th Wedding Anniversary this spring". Cherie Blair. http://www.cherieblair.org/highlights/2010/03/my-memory-is-not-infallible.html. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- ^ CNN.com Facts: Life and times of Tony Blair
- ^ "Blair's son 'drunk and incapable'". BBC News. 2000-07-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/822238.stm. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- ^ "Welcome distraction for Tony Blair". BBC News. 2000-05-20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/756400.stm. Retrieved 2010-07-13.
- ^ Woolf, Marie; Garner, Richard (5 July 2002). "Blair caught up in private tutor row". The Independent (UK). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/blair-caught-up-in-private-tutor-row-647334.html. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ McDonagh, Melanie. Names that mean trouble, The Times, 13 September 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2009.
- ^ Wintour, Patrick; Boseley Sarah. Tony Blair in heart scare, The Guardian, 20 October 2003. Retrieved 18 December 2009.
- ^ "Blair 'prayed to God' over Iraq". BBC News. 3 March 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4772142.stm. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ Roy McCloughry (14 September 1993). "Practising for Power: Tony Blair". Third Way Magazine: the modern world through Christian eyes. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927142102/http://www.thirdway.org.uk/past/showpage.asp?page=43. Retrieved 22 November 2007. "Since 1993, Third Way has been talking in depth to men and women who help to shape our society or set the tone of our culture. We spoke to Tony Blair on 14 September 1993, before the spin doctors closed around him, when he was still shadow Home Secretary and had a full head of hair."
- ^ Colin Brown (3 May 2003). "Campbell interrupted Blair as he spoke of his faith: 'We don't do God'". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1429109/Campbell-interrupted-Blair-as-he-spoke-of-his-faith-We-dont-do-God.html. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
- ^ "Ev'rybody must get stones", The Observer, 8 December 2002
- ^ How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered the World, Francis Wheen, Harper Perennial 2004, ISBN 0-00-714097-5
- ^ "Blair questions Papal gay policy". BBC News. 8 April 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/7987566.stm. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Steve Doughty (4 November 2009). "Catholic leader's rebuke for Blair". The Daily Mail (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1169204/Catholic-leaders-rebuke-Blair.html. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Alexander Chancellor (18 May 2007). "Blair doesn't need intermediaries to communicate with God. So why does he want to become a Catholic?". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,2082533,00.html. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- ^ "Tony Blair joins Catholic faith". BBC News online. 22 December 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7157409.stm. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- ^ "Blair Converts To Catholicism". Sky News. 22 December 2007. http://news.sky.com/skynews/article/0,,30100-1298177,00.html. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- ^ Ruth Gledhill, Jeremy Austin and Philip Webster (17 May 2007). "Blair will be welcomed into Catholic fold via his ‘baptism of desire’". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article1801237.ece. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- ^ Walters, Simon (12 April 2007). "An identity crisis for Blair: Former PM describes Jerusalem as 'home'". London: Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1169342/An-identity-crisis-Blair-Former-PM-describes-Jerusalem-home.html. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
- ^ "Tony Blair addresses Obama's first annual National Prayer Breakfast". Ekklesia. 5 February 2009. http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/node/8558. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Blair, Tony (July 1982). "The full text of Tony Blair's letter to Michael Foot written in July 1982". The Daily Telegraph (London: Telegraph Media Group Ltd.). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/06/16/nletter116.xml&sSheet=/news/2006/06/16/ixuknews.html. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ Navrozov, Lev (21 April 2006). "On Democracy". NewsMax.com. http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2006/4/20/170221.shtml. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ Seddon, Mark (2004). "America's Friend: Reflections on Tony Blair". Logos 3.4. http://www.logosjournal.com/issue_3.4/seddon.htm. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ "About Labour". The Labour Party. 2006. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061116065904/http://www.labour.org.uk/aboutlabour. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ "BBC Archive". BBC Programme Catalogue. http://open.bbc.co.uk/catalogue/infax/programme/LCAQ520E. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ a b Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 326. ISBN 0465041957.
- ^ "1997: Labour landslide ends Tory rule". BBC News. 15 April 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/vote_2005/basics/4393323.stm.
- ^ "Education, education, education" BBC News,14 May 2007. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- ^ Kingdom, John (April 2003). Government and Politics in Britain: An Introduction (3rd ed.). Polity Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-0745625942.
- ^ 
- ^ "Biography: The Prime Minister Tony Charles Lynton Blair". Prime Minister's Office. Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070604003655/http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/page4.asp. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ BBC News Archive, "1998: Northern Ireland peace deal reached"
- ^ Philip Stephens, "Blair’s remarkable record", Financial Times, 10 May 2007
- ^ Telegraph.co.uk: Omagh, Northern Ireland's worst atrocity 24 December 2007
- ^ "The rise and fall of New Labour". BBC News. 3 August 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-10518842.
- ^ Quoted by satirist Armando Ianucci and called his 'favourite sentence of the Inquiry so far' Radio 5 Live 21 January 2010
- ^ Riazat Butt and Richard Norton-Taylor (12 December 2009). "Tony Blair admits: I would have invaded Iraq anyway". Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/dec/12/tony-blair-iraq-chilcot-inquiry. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ "Malaysian former PM Mahathir accuses Tony Blair as war criminal". Xinhua News Agency. 1 August 2008. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-08/01/content_8890239.htm. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ David Fickling (7 December 2005). "Pinter demands war crimes trial for Blair". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/dec/07/iraq.booksnews. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ "Iraq inquiry hears defiant Blair say: I'd do it again". BBC News. 29 January 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8485694.stm. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- ^ "Tony Blair defends UK involvement in Iraq war". BBC News. 29 January 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/8485694.stm. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- ^ Mulholland, Helene; Sparrow, Andrew (29 January 2010). "Tony Blair at Iraq inquiry – the key points". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/jan/29/tony-blair-iraq-inquiry-key-points. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- ^ "PM: Saddam and his regime will be removed". Prime Minister's Office. 25 March 2003. http://www.number10.gov.uk/output/Page3347.asp. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
- ^ Tempest, Matthew (7 September 2004). "Tony Blair's press conference". The Guardian (London: Guardian Newspapers Ltd.). http://politics.guardian.co.uk/media/story/0,,1299024,00.html. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
- ^ "Blair agrees to face grilling by select committee critics" Daily Telegraph, 27 April 2002. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
- ^ Ian Kershaw, "How will history judge Blair?", BBC News, 10 May 2007.
- ^ Timothy Garton Ash, "President Blair: Americans love our leader but may cause his downfall", The Guardian, 24 July 2003
- ^ Andrew Marr, "How Blair put the media in a spin" BBC News, 10 May 2007
- ^ "Blair questioned in honours probe", BBC News, 14 December 2006
- ^ Blair a casualty of U.K. support for Iraq war, The Washington Times, 8 November 2003
- ^ Diplomat's suppressed document lays bare the lies behind Iraq war, The Independent, 15 December 2006
- ^ Blair Risked Much in Support of U.S.-U.K. Friendship, National Public Radio, 9 May 2007
- ^ Talk of war dents Blair's popularity, Daily Telegraph, 17 February 2003
- ^ Tony Blair to Resign in a Year, ABC News, 7 September 2006
- ^ The End of the Tony Show, Der Spiegel, 10 May 2007
- ^ "I will quit within a year —Blair". BBC News. 7 September 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/5322094.stm. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ a b Churcher, Joe; Woodcock, Andrew (27 June 2007). "Blair resigns as MP and heads for Mideast role". The Independent (London). http://news.independent.co.uk/article2715349.ece. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
- ^ Andrew Pierce (7 October 2007). "Tony Blair refuses to produce an honours list". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1565263/Tony-Blair-refuses-to-produce-an-honours-list.html. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
- ^ Polly Toynbee, Michael White and Patrick Wintour "We're a left-of-centre party pursuing prosperity and social justice", The Guardian, 11 September 2001
- ^ "The Death of Socialism", 17 May 2007
- ^ Neal Lawson, "A decade of Blair has left the Labour party on its knees", The Guardian, 19 April 2007
- ^ YouGov UK Polling Report, Left vs Right, 23 September 2005
- ^ Peter Kellner, "What's left of the Labour leader?", New Stateman, 28 October 2002
- ^ "Why Blair was no conservative", Financial Times, 18 May 2007
- ^ Steve Richards, "Blair the politician: A conjuror who lost touch with his party", The Belfast Telegraph, 11 May 2007
- ^ Mike Marquesee, "Labour's long march to the right", International Socialism, Issue 91, Summer 2001
- ^ Charlie Kimber, "Can the left reclaim the Labour Party?", Socialist Worker, 2 August 2002
- ^ Mark Rice-Oxley, "Tony Blair's decade of peace and war", The Christian Science Monitor, 11 May 2007
- ^ Alan Cowell, "Tory leader urges British opposition to stake out 'center ground'", International Herald Tribune, 1 October 2006
- ^ "Tony Blair’s legacy: 20% jump in amount of legislation introduced per year" (PDF). 1 June 2007. http://www.sweetandmaxwell.thomson.com/about-us/press-releases/010607.pdf. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Blair's 'frenzied law making' : a new offence for every day spent in office 16 August 2006. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
- ^ Jon Silverman, Legal affairs analyst, "Blair's new look civil liberties", BBC News, 14 May 2007
- ^ Tony Blair and Global Warming Brookings, 18 November 2003. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- ^ Jeremy Lovell, Britain Set to Miss its Own Greenhouse Gas Target Britain Set to Miss its Own Greenhouse Gas Target Planet Ark, 29 March 2006
- ^ Blair's 'longest serving Labour Prime Minister' environment record attacked Farsham House Group, 11 February 2005. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- ^ Blair defends green record BBC News, 24 October 2000. Retrieved 17 April 2008.
- ^ "Mandela condemns US stance on Iraq". BBC News. 30 January 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/2710181.stm. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
- ^ Assinder, Nick (3 February 2003). "Blair battles "poodle" jibes". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2721513.stm. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
- ^ "Bush 'routinely ignoring Blair'". BBC News. 30 November 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6158435.stm. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
- ^ George W. Bush (20 September 2001). "Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People". The White House website. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html. Retrieved 22 November 2007. "America has no truer friend than Great Britain. (Applause.) Once again, we are joined together in a great cause – so honoured the British Prime Minister has crossed an ocean to show his unity of purpose with America. Thank you for coming, friend. (Applause.)"
- ^ Julian Glover and Ewen MacAskill (25 July 2006). "Stand up to US, voters tell Blair". The Guardian (London). http://politics.guardian.co.uk/foreignaffairs/story/0,,1828225,00.html. Retrieved 22 November 2007. "Britain should take a much more robust and independent approach to the United States, according to a Guardian/ICM poll published today, which finds strong public opposition to Tony Blair's close working relationship with President Bush."
- ^ "PM's speech on US Elections". Prime Minister's Office. 3 November 2004. http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page6526.asp. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
- ^ Hugo Young in Washington (14 November 2002). "Hugo Young: Blair has not been a poodle, but poodleism still beckons". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/nov/14/iraq.foreignpolicy. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ "Transcript: Bush and Blair's unguarded chat". BBC News. 18 July 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/5188258.stm. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Anthony Seldon, Blair, (London: Free Press, 2005), p. 506.
- ^ Assaf Uni, Finance scandal has local community worried, Haaretz, 10 December 2007.
- ^ Euan Ferguson (19 March 2006). "There was once a jolly bagman". London: Guardian. http://politics.guardian.co.uk/funding/story/0,,1734529,00.html?gusrc=rss.
- ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/wintour-and-watt/2011/jan/20/alastaircampbell-binyamin-netanyahu
- ^ Jewish Care, Fundraising Dinner 2006.
- ^ Wavell, Stuart (19 March 2006). "Lord Cashpoint's touch of money magic". The Sunday Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2087-2092803,00.html. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
- ^ Dillon, Jo (4 May 2003). "Dalyell attacks 'Jewish cabal'". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/dalyell-attacks-jewish-cabal-538006.html. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ a b c Seldon, Blair, p. 506.
- ^ Diplomats attack Blair's Israel policy, Guardian Unlimited, Matthew Tempest, 26 April 2004
- ^ Cabinet in open revolt over Blair's Israel policy, The Observer, 30 July 2006
- ^ Peter Watt, "The 'Complex' Issue of 'Humanitarian' Intervention" ZNet, 6 August 2006
- ^ "Blair's fight to keep his oil cash secret: Former PM's deals are revealed as his earnings since 2007 reach £20million". Daily Mail (London). 19 March 2010. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1259030/Tony-Blairs-secret-dealings-South-Korean-oil-firm-UI-Energy-Corp.html. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- ^ Daily Mirror "Tony Blair's secret lucrative advisory job with Iraq oil firm" 20 March 2010. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- ^ Gaby Hinsliff, "The PM, the mogul and the secret agenda", The Observer, 23 July 2006
- ^ Grice, Andrew (24 October 2008). "Cameron, Murdoch and a Greek island freebie". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/cameron-murdoch-and-a-greek-island-freebie-971470.html. Retrieved 25 October 2008.
- ^ a b c d e "Blair and Murdoch spoke days before Iraq war". The Guardian (London). 19 July 2007. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2007/jul/19/freedomofinformation.iraq. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
- ^ Fletcher, Kim (10 July 2006). "The meetings that matter between Murdoch and Blair". The Guardian (London). http://politics.guardian.co.uk/foi/story/0,,1818852,00.html. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
- ^ "When Murdoch met Blair – information released". Bindmans. http://www.bindmans.com/index.php?id=289. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
- ^ "Blair & Murdoch – FOI v Campbell". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/cgi-perl/mt/mt-comments.cgi. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
- ^ Buerkle, Tom (1997-09-01). "Charles Takes Diana's Body Home From Paris – World Mourns the 'People's Princess'". NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/09/01/news/01iht-london.html?pagewanted=1. Retrieved 2010-07-20. [dead link]
- ^ "Tony coined the 'people's princess'". London: Telegraph. 2007-07-09. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1556863/Tony-coined-the-peoples-princess.html. Retrieved 2010-07-20.
- ^ a b Elliott, Francis (4 September 2006). "'Deluded': Extraordinary attack on Blair by Cabinet". The Independent (London). http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/politics/article1325433.ece. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- ^ "Blair attacked over right-wing EU links" BBC News, 15 March 2002
- ^ Ed Vulliamy, "By their friends shall we know the Sultans of Bling : Blair's relationships with Berlusconi, Bush and Murdoch have defined his premiership. Now Merkel is to join the trio", The Guardian, 27 October 2005
- ^ Martin Kettle, "Why Ségo and Sarko have transfixed the British left", The Guardian, 28 April 2007
- ^ A MORI opinion poll published in The Sunday Times on 15 May found that, among the general public, Blair had the support of 32%, John Prescott 19%, Margaret Beckett 14%, Gordon Brown 9% and Robin Cook 5%.
- ^ Andrew Rawnsley (5 October 2003). "A marriage on the rocks". The Observer (London: Guardian Newspapers Ltd.). http://politics.guardian.co.uk/labour2003/comment/0,,1056215,00.html. Retrieved 5 March 2007.
- ^ Tony Blair throws himself into election campaign with praise for Gordon Brown and harsh words for Tories" The Guardian, 30 March 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- ^ "Blair becomes Middle East envoy". BBC News. 27 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6244358.stm. Retrieved 27 June 2007.
- ^ "US 'wants Blair' for Mid-East job". BBC News. 21 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/6222848.stm.
- ^ Matthew Tempest and Mark Tran (20 June 2007). "US approves of Blair as possible Middle East envoy". The Guardian (London). http://politics.guardian.co.uk/tonyblair/story/0,,2107523,00.html.
- ^ Israel may ease grip in Tony Blair deal to revive West Bank, The Times, 14 May 2008
- ^ Matthew Kalman (5 January 2009). "As Gaza is torn apart by war, where is Middle East peace envoy Tony Blair? He's been on HOLIDAY". Daily Mail (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1105250/As-Gaza-torn-apart-war-Middle-East-peace-envoy-Tony-Blair-Hes-HOLIDAY.html. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ a b "Tony Blair joins investment bank". BBC News. 10 January 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7180306.stm. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- ^ Hencke, David Insurance job takes Blair's earnings above £7m, The Guardian, 29 January 2008
- ^ Lectures see Tony Blair earnings jump over £12m Times Online, 29 October 2008
- ^ "People: Tony Blair’s earnings are £12m a year". The First Post. 29 October 2008. http://www.thefirstpost.co.uk/people,1565,blairs-earnings-are-12m-a-year,52596. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Martineau, Kim (7 March 2008). "Blair To Teach At Yale Next Year". The Hartford Courant (Hartford, Connecticut: Tribune Company). http://www.courant.com/news/custom/topnews/hcu-tonyblair-0307,0,1787038.story. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- ^ Tony Blair got cash for deal with South Korean oil firm by Solomon Hughes and David Leigh, The Guardian, Wednesday 17 March 2010
- ^ McGurk, Tom (2010-09-05). "Blair is a lifer in the prison of his dark past". Sbpost.ie. http://www.sbpost.ie/commentandanalysis/blair-is-a-lifer-in-the-prison-of-his-dark-past-51461.html. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- ^ Tony Blair Inc: a nice little earner The Sunday Times, 22 February 2009
- ^ Grice, Andrew (20 October 2007). "Blair emerges as candidate for 'President of Europe'". The Independent (London). http://news.independent.co.uk/europe/article3078889.ece. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
- ^ AFP (2007). Blair charms France's ruling party amid talk of EU top job. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- ^ Crumley, Bruce (14 January 2008). "Blair Weighs Up EU Presidency Bid". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1703254,00.html.
- ^ Blair, Tony (28 October 2009). "German party cool on Blair for EU". BBC World Service News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8329554.stm.
- ^ "EU foreign head dismisses critics". The BBC. 20 November 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/8369730.stm. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- ^ Blair, Tony (29 October 2009). "Downing Street is less optimistic about Blair campaign to become EU President". BBC World Service News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/8333192.stm.
- ^ "Tony Blair Sports Foundation". Tony Blair Sports Foundation. http://tonyblairsportsfoundation.org/. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ "Mission statement", Tony Blair Faith Foundation, 30 May 2008.
- ^ "Tony Blair’s Faith Foundation speech". The New Statesman. http://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/the-god-blog/2009/09/faith-foundation-blair-speech.
- ^ Leigh, David; Ian Griffiths (1 December 2009). "The mystery of Tony Blair's finances". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/dec/01/mystery-tony-blair-finances. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- ^ "'Frank' Blair memoirs out in September" The Bookseller, 4 March 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- ^ Tony Blair's memoirs title change strikes a less 'messianic' tone Robert Booth The Guardian 12 July 2010
- ^ "Tony Blair donates book cash to injured soldier charity". BBC News (BBC). 16 August 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-10988478. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- ^ Grice, Andrew (2 September 2010). "Blair's memoirs: From No10 to No1". The Independent (London: Independent Newspapers Ltd). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/blairs-memoirs-from-no10-to-no1-2068147.html. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
- ^ Tubridy to chat to Tony Blair on Late Late. RTÉ ten.
- ^ Tony Blair interview greeted by Iraq war protesters and Jedward fans. Guardian.
- ^ Shoes and eggs thrown at Tony Blair as he attends book signing. Telegraph
- ^ Subversively move Tony Blair's memoirs to the crime section in the book shop | http://www.facebook.com/#!/group.php?gid=150746811621277
- ^ "The Regina Monologues". The Simpsons.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070320093219/http://www.thesimpsons.com/episode_guide/1504.htm. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- ^ Masterchef Addict's blog, The Stage, 15 March 2007
- ^ "Catherine Tate hails Blair's comic skills". The Telegraph (London). 22 March 2007. Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080111011426/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/03/22/ntate121.xml. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
- ^ This one's for you, Tony The Observer, 30 September 2007
- ^ Siegel, Tatiana (7 November 2007). "Roman Polanski returns with 'Ghost'". Variety (Reed Business Information). http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117975536.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
- ^ Michael E. Eidenmuller (18 July 2003). "Tony Blair Addresses Congress Accepting the Congressional Gold Medal Award". American Rhetoric – Online Speech Bank. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/tblaircongressionalgoldmedal.htm. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ "Queen makes Blair an offer that he can refuse". The Daily Telegraph (London). 13 May 2007. Archived from the original on 21 January 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080121050131/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2007/05/13/dp1301.xml#head1. Retrieved 22 November 2007.
- ^ Kite, Melissa (30 December 2007). "Tony Blair spurns honour system". London: Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/1574027/Tony-Blair-spurns-honour-system.html. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- ^ "Queen's degrees for ex-premiers". BBC News. 22 May 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/7413956.stm. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
- ^ "Blair to get US Medal of Freedom". BBC News. 5 January 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7812582.stm. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ Jo Adetunji (13 January 2009). "Bush gives Blair highest US civilian honour". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/jan/13/tony-blair-presidential-medal-freedom. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ David Gardner (13 January 2009). "For services rendered? George Bush awards 'staunch friend' Tony Blair Presidential Medal Of Freedom". Daily Mail (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1114405/For-services-rendered-George-Bush-awards-staunch-friend-Tony-Blair-Americas-Presidential-Medal-Of-Freedom.html. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ President Bush awards Tony Blair Presidential Medal of Freedom Times Online, 13 January 2009
- ^ 17 February 2009 (17 February 2009). "Blair wins Dan David Prize". JTA – Jewish & Israel News. http://jta.org/news/article/2009/02/17/1003041/blair-is-dan-david-prize-winner. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- ^ "Blair's peace-broker prize surreal, say anti-war campaigners". Radio France Internationale. http://www.rfi.fr/actuen/articles/110/article_2916.asp. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
- Abse, Leo (2001). Tony Blair: The Man Behind the Smile. Robson Books. ISBN 1-86105-364-9.
- Beckett, F. & Hencke, D. (2004). The Blairs and Their Court. Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-024-3.
- Tony Blair: The Man Who Lost His Smile. Robson Books. 2003. ISBN 1-86105-698-2.
- Blair, Tony (1998). (ed.) Iain Dale. ed. The Blair Necessities: Tony Blair Book of Quotations. Robson Books. ISBN 1-86105-139-5.
- (ed.) Paul Richards, ed (2004). Tony Blair: In His Own Words. Politico's Publishing. ISBN 1-84275-089-5.
- Gould, Philip (1999). The Unfinished Revolution: How the Modernisers Saved the Labour Party. Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11177-4.
- Naughtie, James (2001). The Rivals: The Intimate Story of a Political Marriage. Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-473-3.
- The Accidental American: Tony Blair and the Presidency. Macmillan. 2004. ISBN 1-4050-5001-2.
- Rawnsley, Andrew (2000). Servants of the People: The Inside Story of New Labour. Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-14029-3.
- Servants of the People: The Inside Story of New Labour (2nd ed.). Penguin Books. 2001. ISBN 0-14-027850-8.
- Rentoul, John (2001). Tony Blair: Prime Minister. Little Brown. ISBN 0-316-85496-4.
- Riddell, Peter (2004). The Unfulfilled Prime Minister: Tony Blair and the End of Optimism. Politico's Publishing. ISBN 1-84275-113-1.
- Seldon, Anthony (2004). Blair. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-3211-9.
- Short, Clare (2004). An Honourable Deception? New Labour, Iraq, and the Misuse of Power. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-6392-8.
- Stephens, Philip (2004). Tony Blair: The Making of a World Leader. Viking Books. ISBN 0-670-03300-6.
- Wheatcroft, Geoffrey (2007). Yo, Blair!. Methuen. ISBN 9781842732067.
- Blair, T. (2004) "Blair, The Right Hon. A. C. L." from Who's Who, 156th ed., London: A & C Black
- Halsbury's Laws of England (2004), reference to impeachment in volume on Constitutional Law and Human Rights, paragraph 416
- The Queen (2006 film)
|Find more about Tony Blair on Wikipedia's sister projects:|
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Images and media from Commons|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
- Tony Blair's post-Downing Street official website
- Tony Blair Faith Foundation
- Tony Blair at the Internet Movie Database
- Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005
- Electoral history and profile at The Guardian
- Voting record at PublicWhip.org
- Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou.com
- Articles authored at Journalisted
- Tony Blair collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Tony Blair collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Tony Blair on Charlie Rose
- Works by or about Tony Blair in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- A Day in the Life an on-line documentary by Tony Blair on life as Prime Minister, at number-10.gov.uk
- pm.gov.uk The Prime Minister Tony Charles Lynton Blair at the Wayback Machine. at www.pm.gov.uk
- The Blair Years—Timeline at BBC News
- Special Report – The Blair years 1997–2007 at BBC News
- Official video showing Tony Blair celebrating 100 years of the Scout movement at Downing St
- Hansard – Prime Ministers Question Time, 27 June 2007 – Official transcript of Tony Blair's final appearance in the Commons containing a mix of day to day business, tributes, quips and light hearted put downs.
|Alternative names||Blair, Anthony Charles Lynton|
|Short description||Politician; Former Prime minister of the United Kingdom|
|Date of birth||6 May 1953|
|Place of birth||Edinburgh, Scotland|
|Date of death|
|Place of death|